Anyone who builds a house or undertakes a renovation does not always have to bear the costs for this completely alone. Numerous subsidies from different agencies help to reduce the overall costs and in many cases to be able to afford renovations in the first place. What all is supported by which agencies, explains the cost check expert in the interview.
Question: what subsidies are available in general – and what is subsidized at all??
Cost check expert: already with the house building even one on subsidies fall back. Who builds particularly energy-efficient, profits thereby even doubly: from higher promotions on the one hand, and from lower operating cost afterwards.
In the case of refurbishments, there are – apart from some tax deductions – mainly subsidies for energy refurbishments that improve the energy standard of buildings. In addition, also barrier-free conversions are almost always eligible for subsidies. Who builds and has children, can receive sometimes still additional promotions.
Subsidies are possible from three levels
- From the federal side (kfw and BAFA)
- From the country side and
- From the municipal side
Funding from the federal government is open to all equally, while funding from the states and municipalities can vary greatly. In some countries there is more, in others generally somewhat less.
Question: first, let's look at federal incentives: you mentioned kfw subsidies and subsidies from the german federal office of economics and export control (BAFA). What promotes for example the kfw?
Cost check expert: with the kfw, the credit institute for reconstruction, both new building and reorganizations are promoted. This is the most important general source of support for private individuals, from which the most money can generally also be expected.
Kfw's funding is divided into two major groups in this regard:
1. Low-interest loans with particularly low interest rates (z.B. From 0.75%)
2. One-time grants for construction and renovation projects
For private individuals, the following subsidies from kfw are of interest for new construction:
|153||credit||energy-efficient construction||up to 100.000 EUR per housing unit, from 1.36 % eff., up to 15.000 EUR repayment subsidy|
|124||credit||financing of owner-occupied residential property (not energy-efficient)||up to 50.000 EUR, from 0.75% eff., for purchase or construction|
|431||grant||building supervision by energy efficiency experts||up to 50 % assumption of the costs (max. 4.000 EUR), also certificates for sustainable construction|
|433||grant||installation and purchase of fuel cell systems||up to 28.200 EUR subsidy possible|
|270||credit||use of renewable energy||for the use of renewable energies on the building, from 1.26 % eff., up to 20 years fixed interest rate possible,|
|275||credit||storage for renewable energies (PV systems)||from 1.10 % eff., battery storage for electricity generated by PV systems, up to 20 years fixed interest rate, repayment subsidy possible|
It is important, as with most grants, that work may not begin until the grant has been approved.
Question: these sound like grants worth quite a bit of money. What can you take advantage of when renovating at kfw?
Kostencheck-experte: for existing properties there are even more subsidies available. Here, too, the subsidies are divided into loans and credits on the one hand and one-time grants on the other hand. Subsidies are provided in 3 main broad areas:
- Increase of energy efficiency
- Age-appropriate and barrier-free renovations
- Achieving higher living comfort and better security (especially in the area of burglary protection)
The following kfw programs are available as loans:
|151 / 152 – credit||energy efficient renovation: conversion into efficiency house or individual measures||up to 100.EUR 000 for conversion, 50.000 for individual measures and packages of measures||from 0.75 % eff., to 27.500 EUR repayment subsidy||higher subsidy possible for particularly efficient heating or ventilation (APEE package)|
|167 loan||supplementary loan for energy-efficient renovation: conversion of the heating system to renewable energies||up to 50.000 EUR per housing unit||from 1,26 % eff., up to 10 years maturity, fixed interest rate possible, 1 – 2 years grace period||none|
|159 – credit||age-appropriate conversion, higher living comfort and better burglary protection||up to 50.000 EUR per housing unit||from 0.75 % eff., regardless of age||possible as an add-on to loan 151/152, also as an add-on to kfw grant nr. 430|
These were the loan subsidies. In addition, as a private individual, the following grants can also be applied for, which in some cases can also be combined with loans:
|430 – allowance||renovation to an efficiency house or individual measures||up to 30.000 EUR per dwelling unit, additional funding from the APEE program for particularly efficient heating or ventilation systems|
|431 – grant||building assistance for energy-efficient rebuilding||50% of the costs are covered (max. 4.000 EUR), even for sustainable building certificates|
|433 – subsidy||installation of fuel cells||up to 28.200 EUR subsidy per fuel cell|
|455-B grant||barrier reduction in the case of age-appropriate conversion (including increased living comfort)||up to 6.250 EUR per housing unit|
|455-E grant||increase of the burglary protection||up to 1.600 EUR per housing unit (home)|
Also with these subsidies applies: it must first a promotion promise be present, before with the work may begin.
Question: which subsidies are available from BAFA??
Cost check expert: the federal office of economics and export control, BAFA, is primarily concerned with climate protection. Grants are therefore available for private individuals in the following areas:
- Energy-saving heating systems or related systems
- Heating systems operated with biomass (pellets, wood chips, logs)
- Solar thermal systems
- Heat pumps
- Subsequent optimization of heating systems
In addition, the BAFA also promotes electromobility in the private sector.
However, a large part of BAFA's subsidies is also aimed at the commercial and industrial sectors. Such subsidies are not accessible to private individuals then.
Question: which subsidies are available for biomass heating systems from BAFA??
BAFA subsidizes the conversion to a biomass-fueled heating system in an existing building. The old heating system must have been in operation for at least two years. Eligible are systems with a rated output between 5 kw and 100 kw.
|woodchip boiler with buffer tank||lump sum 3.500 EUR||at least 30 l buffer storage per kw nominal heat output, at least 89 % efficiency|
|pellet boiler||80 EUR per kw output, but at least 3.000 EUR||min. 55 l buffer storage per kw nominal output, min. 89 % efficiency|
|pellet boiler with new buffer storage (newly built buffer storage)||80 EUR per kw nominal output, minimum 3.500 EUR||min. 30 l buffer tank per kw, for combination boilers: 55 l, min. 89 % efficiency|
|pellet stove with water pocket||80 EUR per kw nominal output, minimum 2.000 EUR||combustion efficiency of at least 90|
|log gasifier with buffer tank||lump sum 2.000 EUR||at least 55 l per kw nominal heat output buffer storage, at least 89 % efficiency|
All systems are still subject to the condition that they may only be fed with untreated biomass and that an inspection certificate is required in accordance with 1. Bimschv must be present.
This is the basic subsidy for heating systems, but additional subsidies can also be applied for.
Question: what are the additional subsidies?
Cost check expert: BAFA always awards additional funding when:
- Different systems are combined
- Systems to be connected to a heating network
- A building is highly energy efficient
- The heating system is optimized at the same time as the system is installed
With a plant combination 500 EUR additional bonus are paid, with very efficient buildings (kfw efficiency house 55 and under) and a simultaneous heating optimization up to 50% of the respective basis promotion can be additionally paid.
In addition, there are still subsidies for innovative technologies:
|exhaust gas heat exchanger||4.500 EUR – 5.250 EUR per system at least, or 80 EUR per kw nominal power||system must be eligible as for basic subsidy|
|particle separator||3.000 EUR – 5.250 EUR minimum per unit, or 80 EUR per kw nominal output||log gasifier and pellet stove with water pocket flat rate 3.000 EUR|
For new construction, the subsidy for these technical innovations is a flat rate of 3.000 EUR – 3.500 EUR. The additional subsidies such as combination bonus or efficiency bonus can also be claimed here.
Question: how does BAFA promote heat pumps and solar thermal energy?
Here, too, there is a basic and an additional subsidy in each case. For the basic subsidy for heat pumps applies:
|electric heat pump||40 EUR per kw nominal heat output, at least 1.300 EUR per system|
|power controlled or monovalent electric heat pump||40 EUR per kw nominal heat output, at least 1.500 EUR per facility|
|heat pumps with heat source earth and water||100 EUR per kw nominal heat output, at least 4.000 3 or 4.500 EUR for geothermal probe drilling|
|sorption and gas engine heat pumps||100 EUR per kw nominal heat output, at least 4.500 EUR|
Electric heat pumps must have a minimum JAB (annual performance factor) of 3.5 or. 3.8 can be achieved and proven. At least one heat meter must be installed, as well as an electricity meter for the heat pump. Proof of adaptation of the heating curve to the building must be provided. For gas engine heat pumps, an annual heating index of 1.25 must be achieved.
If the heat pump is load-manageable or combined with other technologies (solar thermal, biomass heating), 500 EUR additional bonus can be paid. Efficiency bonus of 50 % additionally for particularly efficient buildings as well as for optimized heating systems, same as for biomass systems.
In the case of solar thermal energy, different funding rates apply in turn.
Question: which are?
Cost check expert: the subsidy for solar thermal systems always depends on what the system is used for. This is shown in the table below:
|water heating||50 EUR per m² collector area, min. 500 EUR|
|space heating||140 EUR per m², minimum 2.000 EUR per system (between 7 and 40 m² collector area)|
|combined space heating and hot water production||like space heating|
|expansion of existing facilities||50 EUR per m², between 4 and 40 m² area|
The possible additional subsidies are the same as for heat pumps as well. All solar thermal subsidies can be combined with kfw subsidies.
For new construction, private individuals are not eligible for assistance, only large solar thermal systems on multi-family dwellings.
Question: what kind of subsidies are available from the provinces?
Kostencheck-experte: the subsidies of individual federal states for private individuals are very different. The following table provides a brief overview:
|bavaria||subsidies for purchase or construction according to annual income, interest subsidy program||bayernlabo program|
|baden-wurttemberg||purchase, interest subsidies, heating with renewable energies (loans), creation of housing in historic locations||L-bank|
|berlin||energy consulting, age-appropriate conversions, subsidy supplementary loans, energetic refurbishment||investment bank berlin|
|brandenburg||purchase, energy-efficient construction, age-appropriate conversion, accessibility||investment bank of the state of brandenburg (ILB)|
|bremen||partial energy efficiency (loan)||BIS bremerhaven and WFB|
|hamburg||purchase, barrier-free conversion, modernization||investment and development bank (IFB) hamburg|
|hesse||purchase (hesse loan)conversion for the disabled, repayment subsidy for kfw loan, interest subsidy kfw loan, sound insulation||WI bank hesse|
|mecklenburg-western pomerania||housing refurbishment for disadvantaged households, modernization, barrier-free conversion, lifts||state funding institute M-V|
|lower saxony||purchase for families and people with disabilities, age-appropriate conversion, energy modernization, flood assistance, loan protection||N-bank lower saxony|
|NRW||purchase, building renovation (low-interest loans), barrier-free living, burglary protection, energy efficiency, energy check, energy-efficient construction and renovation||NRW.Bank|
|RP||purchase and renovation of owner-occupied housing||investment and structure bank (ISB) rhineland-palatinate|
|saarland||energy storage, energy check, barrier-free living, renovation/modernization, PV systems, energy-efficient construction||various and saarland investment credit bank (SIKB)|
|saxony||construction for families, subsidy supplementary loans, housing adaptation for people with disabilities, interest rate adjustment program||saxon development bank|
|saxony-anhalt||purchase and modernization for families (low-interest subsidized loans), age-appropriate conversion, energy-efficient refurbishment, vacant property refurbishment||investment bank (IB) saxony-anhalt,|
|schleswig-holstein||purchase and construction, efficiency house, additional financing, modernization, age-appropriate conversion, barrier-free living and burglary protection, follow-up financing and interest rate adjustments||investitionsbank schleswig-holstein (IB.SH)|
|thuringia||building loans for families, modernization and repair, redevelopment bonus (rehabilitation of vacant housing and brownfields)||thuringer aufbaubank|
In many german states, there are important and valuable additional subsidies for all important areas of construction, renovation and energy efficiency.
Question: in addition, municipal subsidies also come into play, do they not??
Kostencheck-experte: yes, exactly. Many municipalities also offer interesting, additional funding opportunities. On the one hand, building land can often be purchased cheaply from municipalities; on the other hand, families in particular are often given generous relief when building.
In nuremberg, for example, there are up to 9.000 EUR subsidy when building a family home, plus an additional 7.200 EUR for the 2. Child and 2.000 EUR for each additional one, and 1.500 EUR eco-allowance for energy-efficient buildings. So a large family is charged here with sometimes more than 20.000 EUR at the construction (or also purchase) relieved.
Also in many smaller cities the building cost subsidy is often considerable – as a rule one gets in the larger cities generally however more. Many municipalities also pay annual interest subsidies, especially for energy-efficient buildings, such as stuttgart.
In the area of modernization and renovation, the subsidies from individual municipalities are rather small, but they do exist on a case-by-case basis.
Question: are there also general subsidies that we have not yet taken into account here??
Kostencheck-experte: to call would be here of the completeness half also still
- The "wohnriester
- (subsidized) home savings and home savings loans
- The promotions of the catholic and protestant church
With which you can also still get subsidized money for construction financing together. As a rule, churches grant mainly discounted heritable building rights to families, but in some cases also loans.
Question: how does it look with renovations with the costs for the craftsmen – can one receive these likewise promoted?
Kostencheck-experte: you can claim the costs for work to a certain extent for tax purposes.
In order to be able to deduct craftsmen's costs
- The craftsman to issue an invoice showing the labor charges separately (no lump-sum prices)
- The invoice should be transferred (cash payment of the invoice is not accepted by the tax office)
Deductible are up to 6.000 EUR in wage costs, travel expenses and equipment costs for the craftsmen, which one can declare per year. With the tax one receives then 20% of these costs credited, thus maximally 1.200 EUR per year.
Only the costs for renovations and repairs are deductible, but not for new buildings (such as a new garage). Maintenance work on the heating system and the chimney sweep, however, also fall under the heading of renovations, such as the laying of parquet flooring or the repair of electronic equipment in the home.
By the way, since 2014, anyone building a new conservatory has also been able to claim the labor and travel costs of the craftsmen against tax.